Footnotes and Bibliography

The required format of documentation is footnotes and a bibliography. This page provides examples of some of the most common forms of footnotes. See the full style guide for more examples and instructions.

Footnote Basics

  • Set footnotes to appear “beneath text”
  • Footnotes are size 10 font, Times New Roman
  • Indent the first line of the footnote 1/2 inch
  • Single-space footnote entries, but double-space between each footnote
  • Use full-size numbers followed by a period in the footnotes
  • Repeat entries use a shortened author-title form
  • Use Ibid if you are citing from the same source as the previous footnote

Bibliography Basics

  • A bibliography lists every source used to write your paper
  • Font is size 12, Times New Roman
  • Single-space each entry, but double-space between each entry
  • First line of entry is flush with left margin; subsequent lines are indented 1/2 inch

Examples of Common Footnotes

N = Footnote ~ SN = Shortened Note ~ B = Bibliography

Book with One Author


1. Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 233.
1. Grudem, Systematic Theology, 233.
Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Book with Two Authors



3. James Robinson and Helmut Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971), 237.
3. Robinson and Koester, Trajectories, 237.
Robinson, James and Helmut Koester. Trajectories through Early Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971.

Book with an Editor



5. Mark W. Chavalas, ed. Women in the Ancient Near East (New York: Routledge, 2014), 70.
5. Chavalas, ed. Women, 70.
Chavalas, Mark W., ed. Women in the Ancient Near East. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Electronic Book



13. Thomas Schreiner, Forty Questions about Christians and Biblical Law, ed. Benjamin L. Merkle (Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic, 2010), 33. Logos.
13. Schreiner, Forty Questions, 33.
Schreiner, Thomas. Forty Questions about Christians and Biblical Law. Edited by Benjamin L. Merkle. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic, 2010. Logos.

Commentary as Part of Series

Commentaries require the full information of the author, volume title, series title, editor, volume number, and publishing information. Many reference works, such as commentaries, lexicons, biblical and theological dictionaries, have approved abbreviations. See the full style guide for approved abbreviations.

Commentary within a Volume and Multivolume Work


4. Donald A. Carson, Expositor‘s 9:231.
4. Carson, Expositor‘s 9:231.
Carson, Donald A. “Matthew.” Pages 23–670 in Matthew and Mark. Vol. 9 of Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Edited by Tremper III and David E. Garland. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010.


Many academic journals have approved abbreviations. See the full style guide for approved abbreviations.



14. Steven M. Fettke and Michael L. Dusing, “A Practical Pentecostal Theodicy?” Pneuma 38 (2016): 169.
14. Fettke and Dusing, “Practical Pentecostal,” 169.
Fettke, Steven M. and Michael L. Dusing. “A Practical Pentecostal Theodicy?” Pneuma 38 (2016): 160–179.

Electronic Journals

Electronic journals use the same format as regular journals. Do not use the URL in the footnote, even though Turabian recommends it. Do include the URL in the bibliography.

Use of Ibid.

23. Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 233.

24. Ibid. (If it is the same page. If it is a different page, Ibid., 525.)

25. Millard Erickson, Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013), 119.

26. Grudem, Systematic Theology, 167.